Brexit and Cable
I remember that two years ago, the same night of the kick-start of the World Cup in Brazil on June 12th 2014 (Brazil won 3-1 against Croatia), Mark Carney gave a speech at the Mansion House giving an update on the BoE’s monetary policy. At that time, he hinted that interest rates may rise sooner than had been expected; and the market was starting to price in a 25bps hike by the end of Q4 2014. Cable was trading at a (almost) 6-year high ($1.72) in a year when the British economy grew at its fastest pace for nine years at 2.8% (and the fastest-growing major economy in 2014 as you can see below).
Two years later, the Official Bank rate is still at 0.5%, Cable is down 24% trading at around 1.33 after hitting a low of 1.2798 last week and the market has been positioned for a rate cut since Brexit in order to re-establish confidence in the UK market. While the BoE disappointed today by keeping the benchmark rate steady at 0.5% (only Gertjan Vlieghe voted for a 25bps cut) and no further easing, markets are pricing in a 80%+ chance of a rate-cut later this year with the September and December Short Sterling futures contract trading at 99.63 and 99.67 respectively (meaning that the implied rates are 37bps and 33bps).
Economists have slashed UK outlook and market participants are now expecting the UK economy to enter into a recession by the end of the year, mainly coming from a contraction in business investment and a sharp decrease in property prices. Major UK property funds (Aviva, M&G, Starndard Life, Aberdeen…) have suspended redemptions blaming uncertainty in the property market following Brexit. Therefore, a Summer Stimulus coming from the BoE could partially solve the UK current problematic situation.
The combination of an expected loose monetary policy in addition to poor fundamentals will continue to add pressure on the British pound in the coming months, and Cable could retest new lows toward 1.25.
A contagion in the European Banking system
I mentioned several times that a European Banking Crisis was one of the major Black Swans that could shake the market for a long period of time mainly due to a rise in the Non-Performing Loans (NPLs). For instance, in Italy, it was reported that 17% of banks’ loans are sour, a total of 360bn Euros of NPLs. To give you an idea, it was ‘only’ 5% in the US during 2008-2009. In consequence, Italian banks have been under attack (once again) with Monte Paschi now trading at 34 cents a share; the oldest surviving bank in the world (and Italian third largest lender) once traded at 93 Euros in May 2007, meaning that its market capitalization plummeted 99.6% in less than a decade. The five-year subordinated CDS is now trading at 1,506bps and the September 2020 subordinated bonds are now trading at 75 cents on the dollar. In response, the European Commission authorized Italy to use 150bn Euros of government guarantees to prevent a potential bank ‘run’ on deposits.
Even though the market has become less sensitive to ‘bad’ news coming from either Greece or Portugal, I strongly believe that Italy (or Spain) is one of the ‘scary’ countries to watch. If NPLs continue to rise in those countries, it will push Europe into a great depression and the write downs are going to be painful for all the stakeholders (equity holders, bond holders and depositors).
Another bank that investors have been following for a while now is Deutsche Bank. There is a funny chart (see below) that has been making the headlines which shows the bank’s share price over the past 18 months overlaid with Lehman’s share price before the collapse. The share hit an all-time low at 11.20 last week and lost 90% of its market cap since June 2007 high. Another scary figure is DB’s derivatives exposure of more than 70 trillion dollars, roughly equivalent to the world’s GDP.
I think that European Banking Crisis is a topic that will stay on the table over the next few months, increasing the volatility in global equities and decreasing the effectiveness of the loose monetary policy run by the major central banks (i.e. ECB or BoJ). The Yen tends to appreciate in periods of massive sell off, hurting the main BoJ’s target (cheaper Yen for higher equities).
There are a lot of interesting topics to be discussed at the moment, and my next article will focus on Japan and the introduction of the Helicopter money.